The history of homeopathy in the Russian Empire
until World War I, as compared with other European countries and the USA: similarities and
by Alexander Kotok, M.D.
On-line version of the Ph.D. thesis improved and enlarged
due to a special grant of the Pierre Schmidt foundation.
Notes and references
Chapter Four: Homeopathy and clergy
1 Michael L.
Ravitch, "The Romance of Russian Medicine", New-York, 1937, p. 34
2 The Nikon
Chronicle — the all-Russian code of the 16th century, comprised many different
sources concerned with the history of Russia. It was composed around 1539—42, and was named
after Patriarch Nikon who owned one of the copies of the Chronicle. ("Sovetsky
Entsiklopedichesky Slovar'" — SES — The Soviet Encyclopedic Dictionary,
Moscow, 1980, p. 899)
3 N. P. Zagoskin,
"Vrachi i vrachebnoe delo v staroi Rossii" (Physicians and Medicine in Old Russia),
Kazan, 1891, p. 21
4 P. V. Vlasov,
"Srednevekovye monastyrskie bolnitsy" (The Medieval Hospitals at the Monasteries),
Sovetskoe zdravoohranenie (Soviet Public Health), 1990, 11, p. 75
5 N. Novombergsky,
"Vrachebnoe stroenie v dopetrovskoi Rusi" (The Medical Construction of Pre-Petrian
Russia), Tomsk, 1907, p. 64
"Ocherki po istorii meditsiny v Rossii" (Essays on the History of Medicine in Russia),
Meditsinskoe obozrenie (Medical Review), 1909, v. 71, p. 74 On the medical affairs of the
Russian Orthodox church in the 16th and 17th centuries see also the chapter
"Bolnitsy. Rol' pravoslavnoi tserkvi" (The Hospitals. The Role of the Orthodox
Church) in: Mark Mirsky, "Ocherki istorii meditsiny v Rossii XVI — XVIII vv." (The
Essays of the History of Medicine in Russia in the 16—18th centuries),
Vladicaucasus, 1995, pp. 29—33 or the chapter with the same title in Mark Mirsky
"Meditsina Rosii XVI—XIX vekov" (Medicine in Russia of the 16—19th
centuries), Moscow, 1996, pp. 39-42, and a paper by V. Bushuev, "K voprosu o narodnom
vrachevanii pri pravoslavnykh monastyriakh" (On the People Treatment at the Orthodox
Monasteries) published in Vrach, 1901, 39, pp. 1185—1190 and 1901, 40, pp.
7 M. Mirsky,
"Ocherki...", see note 6, p. 30
Kiev-Mogilianskaia Academia — established in 1632, Moscow Slavic-Greek-Latin —
established in 1687, Petersburg and Kazan — both established in 1797.
generally, the spiritual academies were, that period, the only institutions of high education in
Russia and Ukraine, which trained well-educated graduates for further state service in diplomacy,
teaching, and other professions.
Katsnelbogen, "Obshchestvennaia meditsina v Rossii (Vtoraia polovina XVIII — nachalo XIX
veka)" (Public Medicine in Russia in the Second Half of the 18th and Beginning of
the 19th Centuries), Volgograd, 1994, p. 16
11 The post of
archiatre ("senior physician" in Greek) was introduced by Peter the Great in 1716. The
archiatre was to head the Meditsinskaia Kantselariia, being virtually in charge for managing all
medical matters in the country. The first Russian archiatre was a Scotchman Dr. Robert Erskine
(1677—1718), who had been a physician-in-ordinary of Peter the Great since 1713. The last
Russian archiatre was also a Scotchman, Dr. James Monsey (1700—1773) in 1762. On the history
of archiatry in Russia see: M. Mirsky, "Meditsina...", see note 6, pp. 67—121
imperatorskogo Russkogo istoricheskogo obshchestva" (The Collection of the Imperial Historical
Society), St. Petersburg, v. 43, p. 91, cit. M. Mirsky, "Ocherki...", see note 6, p.
13 M. Bulgakov,
"Istoria Kievskoi Akademii" (History of the Kiev Academy), St. Petersburg, 1843, p.
14 Because of
obvious overcrowding of the clerical estate by people who had neither places of work nor even hope
to occupy positions anywhere, the State initiated a policy of "removing surpluses" from
the estate. According to the level of education acquired, many people of all ages derived from
clerical families were sent to serve the State in the army, as petty officials, etc. These measures
were carried out uncompromisingly and often arbitrarily.
15 Anton V.
Kartashev, "Ocherki po istorii russkoi tserkvi" (Essays on the History of the Russian
Church), Moscow, 1997, vol. 2, p. 529
16 Ibid., p.
17 Ibid., p.
18 The chief
Russian medical administrative body in 1763—1803, established by Catherine the Great instead
of the Meditsinskaia Kantselariia.
Katsnelbogen, "Obshchestvennaia...", see note 10, pp. 15—16
20 John T.
Alexander, "Catherine the Great and Public Health" Journal of the History of
Medicine, vol. XXXVI, No 2, April 1981, pp. 196—197
21 Gregory L.
Freeze, "The Parish Clergy in Nineteenth-Century Russia: Crisis, Reform, Counter-Reform",
Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1983
22 Ibid., p.
23 Ibid., p.
24 Ibid., p.
25 Boris V.
Titlianov, "Dukhovnaia shkola v Rossii v XIX stoletii" (The Spiritual School in Russia in
the 19th Century), Vilna, 1909, p. 5
26 G. Freeze,
"The Parish...", see note 21, p. 130
27 B. Titlianov,
"Dukhovnaia...", see note 25, p. 104
28 See the
chapter on "Homeopathy and zemstvo medicine".
29 Alexander Y.
Polunov, "Tserkov', vlast' i obshchestvo v Rossii (1880-e — pervaia polovina
1890-yh godov)" (Church, Power and Society in Russia in the 1880s and the Beginning of the
1890s), Voprosy Istorii (Problems of History), 1997, 11, p. 125. For more detailed
information on the period when Constantine Pobedonostsev headed the Holy Synod, see a monography of
Alexander Polunov, "Pod vlastiu ober-prokurora. Gosudarstvo i tserkov' v epokhu Alexandra
III" (Under the Power of the Chief-Procurator: The State and the Church in the Epoch of
Alexander III), Moscow, 1996
30 A. Polunov,
"Tserkov'...", see note 29, p. 126
31 E. M.
Feoktistov, "Za kulisami politiki i literatury" (Behind the Scenes of Politic and
Literature), Leningrad, 1929, p. 169, cit. ibid., p.126
"Narodnaia volia" (The People's Will) — the most large and significant
revolutionary organization of the "narodnichestvo" stream which reflected the interests
of the peasantry. It was mainly represented by "raznochintsy" (those who came from the
miscellaneous ranks families). It was illegally established in St. Petersburg in 1879. In its
program, it proclaimed democratic freedom, abolishing the tsarist autocracy transferring lands to
peasants , and requesting the convocation of the Constituent Assembly. They assassinated the Tsar
Alexander II on March 1, 1881 after seven unsuccessful attempts. In that same year arrests and
internal crisis destroyed the organisation entirely. (SES, see note 2, p. 870)
"black" clergy (regular or monks) in the Russian Orthodox church includes high-ranking
clergymen like bishops, archbishops, metropolitans and patriarchs; in monasteries — novices,
monks, celibate priests, fathers-superior and archimandrites. The "white" clergy includes
priests, archpriests and so-called junior clergy like deacons, archdeacons, some church clerks and
sextons. The "black" clergy remains celibate in contrast to the "white" clergy.
The latter represents the major part of the Orthodox clergy.
34 A. Polunov,
"Tserkov'...", see note 29, p. 127
Pobedonostsev, "Moskovsky sbornik" (The Moscow Collection), Moscow, 1896, p. 124 cit. A.
Polunov, "Tserkov'...", see note 29, p. 131
36 See the story
of Protasov's reforms mentioned above
37 A. Polunov,
"Tserkov'...", see note 29, pp. 131—132. The fact of introducing medicine into
curriculum of seminaries was reflected in the "Obzor deiatel'nosti vedomstva pravoslavnogo
veroispovedaniia za vremia tsarstvovaniia imperatora Alexandra III" (Review of the Activity of
the Department of the Orthodox Confession During the Period of the Rule of the Emperior Alexander
III), St.-Petersburg, 1901. According to this source, the teaching of medicine had been introduced
in 12 seminaries in 1881—1894, pp. 619—620. For the most recent sources on the history
of the Russian Orthodox Church in the 19th century, see the books of S. V. Rimsky,
"Russkaia pravoslavnaia tserkov' v XIX v." (The Russian Orthodox Church in the
19th Century), Rostov-on-Don, 1997 and of I. C. Smolin, "Istoriia russkoi tserkvi
1700—1917" (History of the Russian Church, 1700—1917), Moscow, 1997. It is
interesting to remark that both authors bitterly criticize the Chief Procurators Tolstoy and
Pobedonostsev for blindly neglecting the independence of the Church and imposing the dictate of the
State to the Church. Both authors have considered Tolstoy and Pobedonostsev to be responsible for
the deep crisis in which the Russian Church met the Era of Revolutions.
Engelhardt, "Dvenadtsat' pisem iz derevni" (Twelve Letters from the Village), Moscow,
1956, p. 54
39 A gradual
transference of the rural clergy to state remuneration had nevertheless started as early as in
1893, but it was not completed because of financial problems and of changing government's
priorities. For a detailed analysis of the economic position of the Russian rural clergy see John
S. Curtiss, "Church and State in Russia", New York 1940, pp. 120—129. Although G.
Freeze in his "The Parish..." (see note 21) did not bring detailed statistics on this
subject, he cites many responses given by the parish priests in the questionnaires disseminated
among them in March 1863, by the Special Commission. Those responses reflected clearly a great
dissatisfaction of the common village clergymen with their conditions of life and service. [pp.
40 G. Freeze,
"The Parish...", see note 21, p. 177
Lindenmayer, "Poverty is not a Vice. Charity, Society and the State in Imperial Russia",
Princeton, 1996, p. 59
42 Victor A.
Berdianskikh, "Prikhodskoe dukhovenstvo i razvitie kraevedeniia v XIX veke" (The Rural
Clergy and the Development of Local Lore in the 19th century), Voprosy istorii,
1998, 10, p. 137
44 See the
section "Physicians within zemstvo medicine" in the chapter "Homeopathy and zemstvo
45 "As soon
as somebody in the village becomes ill, he goes to me immediately to receive some drug. Although I
neither treat nor understand treatment, nevertheless they ask me for medicines. They say: 'You
are an educated man, anyway you understand more than we do, give something'. I give castor oil,
pepper or birchen vodka, tea — what I have at the moment. This helps". A. Engelhardt,
"Dvenadtsat' pisem...", see note 38, p. 48
46 See, for
example, the section "Physicians within zemstvo medicine" in the chapter "Homeopathy
and zemstvo medicine"
1894, 2, p. 53
48 See the
section "The Cholera years" in the chapter "Allopathy vs. Homeopathy", pp. 14—16
49 For more
detailed information on him and his conversion to homeopathy see ibid.
50 C. Bojanus,
Rossii", Moscow, 1882, p. 144. See also the chapter "Homeopathic facilities"
51 On his
conversion to homeopathy, see the section "Conversion: a Russian Example" in the chapter
"Allopathy vs. Homeopathy", pp. 62—64
missionary activity had always been one of the main goals of the Russian Orthodox church. This
activity was especially successful in Siberia in the second half of the 19th century, when the
Archbishop Veniamin (1825—1892) himself was one the most successful missionaries. The
Orthodox Missionary Society was headed by the Moscow Metropolitan. Its branches (mainly in Eastern
Russia) were supported both by the state and by private charitable donations. See N. Smirnov,
"Missionerskaia deiatel'nost' tserkvi. Vtoraia polovina XIX v. — 1917" (The
Missionary Activity of the Church — the Second Half of the 19th Century up to
1917). In: A. Klibanov (ed.), "Russkoe pravoslavie: vehi istorii" (The Russian Orthodoxy:
Its Historical Landmarks), Moscow, 1989, pp. 438—463. On Archbishop Veniamin Blagonravov see
N. Talberg, "Istoriia Russkoi Tserkvi" (History of the Russian Church), Jordanville, N.
Y., 1954, pp. 767—768
St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1872, 1, pp. 26—27 and Vestnik
gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1904, 12, pp. 380—382. Also speaking of this experience,
Bojanus refers to the Zhurnal Viatskogo komiteta pravoslavnogo missionerskogo obshchestva
(Journal of the Viatka Committee of the Orthodox Missionary Society) – C. Bojanus
"Gomeopatiia...", see note 50, p. 301, but without details like the year, issue, etc.
54 This evidence
was the subject of a special pride of Russian physicians as it symbolized progress and independence
of Russian medicine. So, A. Tauber, Prof. of Surgery at the Warsaw University (the Kingdom of
Poland was then a part of the Russian Empire), in his speech before delegates of the 4th
Congress of Russian Physicians in 1891, stressed that: "During the last 30 years all
chairs of our medical faculties have been filled only by Russian professors and their
Russian pupils" (Vrach, 1891, 3, p. 57). Another source, summarizing the
development of Russian medicine (while speaking of the end of the 19th century),
mentions that "Even if among the medical professors and physicians of Russia one can meet some
foreign names, these belong, with a few exceptions, to completely assimilated persons who had
graduated from the Russian universities" - E. A. Osipov, I. V. Popov, P. I. Kurkin "XII
Mezhdunarodnyi s'ezd vrachei. Russkaia zemskaia meditsina" (The 12th International
Congress of Physicians. Russian Zemstvo Medicine), Moscow, 1899, p. 57
55 See the
section "The 1840—1860s — the establishment of
homeopathy" in the chapter "Allopathy vs.
Homeopathy", p. 127
Lindenmayer, "Poverty...", see note 41, p. 17. There have been many available sources on
Dr. Haas. See, for example, Heinz Müller-Dietz "Friedrich Joseph Haas als Arzt in Moskau.
Biographische Skizzen", Berlin, 1980; Lev Kopelev "Der heilige Doktor Fjodor Petrovich.
Die Geschichte d. Friedrich Joseph Haas, 1780—1853", Hamburg, 1984 or, the same book in
Russian, "Sviatoi d-r Fedor Petrovich", St. Petersburg, 1993; Anton Hamm & Gerd
Teschke "Ein deutsche Arzt als Heiliger in Moskau", Berlin-Bonn, 1983.
57 For the
activity of Vasily Deriker in the St. Petersburg Society of Homeopathic Physicians, see the section
"Societies" in the chapter "Homeopathic facilities".
Deriker, "O znahariah i vrachebnoi pomoshchi v derevniah. Sviashchennikam i gramotnym liudiam
o domashnem lechenii v narode", St. Petersburg, 1860, 32 pp.
"Narodnaia beseda" (People Talking) — a bi-monthly journal, was published in St.
Petersburg in 1858—67 (in 1858—61 under the title "Soldatskaia beseda"
— Soldiers' Talking); since 1864, was edited by Vasily Deriker himself. The journal
published popular articles on the subjects of religion, natural sciences, householding, etc.
"Severnaia pochta" (Northern Post) — an official weekly of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs issued in 1862—1868 (SES, see note 2, p. 1195). See also the section "Homeopathy and the zemstvo-directed propaganda" in the
chapter "Homeopathy and zemstvo medicine".
61 C. Bojanus,
"Gomeopatiia...", see note 50, pp. 167—168
62 Almost all of
Deriker's books have been more than once republished. I list here the titles of his books in
translation into English with the date of the first publication: "On the sorcerers and medical
help in villages. To the priests and all educated men about domestic treatment within the
people" (1860); "What does cinchona do and whether it may be poison" (1861);
"Preventive and curative medicines against the cattle-plaque"; "Stramonium
and its use after being bitten by rabid animals" (1862); "Popular self-treatment book.
Manual of diseases' treatment with simple domestic and homeopathic medicines for the rural
priests, householders and educated soothsayers"; "Secret and non-secret medicines for
hydrophobia and rabid dogs' bites" (1863); "Homeopathic treatment of cholera. Manual
for physicians and laymen" (1865); "Collected popular medicines used by the healers in
Russia"; "On methods for perserving the people's health. An opinion of a stranger
suggested to the zemstvo meetings and boards" (co-authorship with N. Grech) (1866);
"Homeopathic pharmacology with information on pathology and therapeutic indications".
Vol. 1 (1867); Vol. 2—3 (1868); Vol. 4 (1869); "Preventive medicines for smallpox and
its homeopathic treatment" (1871); "To adherents of homeopathy" (1874);
"Simplified treatment of wounds. An open letter to the Red Cross" (1876). All these books
were published in St. Petersburg.
St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov , 1873, 4, pp. 125—128. Compare these
persecutions 'suffered by feldsher Vassil'ev' with those brought in the section
"The Zemstvo and homeopathy" in the chapter "Homeopathy and zemstvo medicine", suffered by feldsher E.
Veselovsky, "Istoriia zemstva za 40 let" ("Forty Years of History of Zemstvo"),
St. Petersburg, 1909, Republished: Cambridge, 1973, vol. 1, pp. 327—328. On the Trubchev
zemstvo see the section "The Zemstvo and homeopathy"
in the chapter "Homeopathy and zemstvo
65 Henry E.
Sigerist, "Medicine and Health in the Soviet Union", New York, 1947, p. 14
66 C. Bojanus,
"Geschichte der Homöopathie in Rußland", Stuttgart, 1880, pp.
67 C. Bojanus,
"Gomeopatiia...", see note 50, pp. 301—302
68 E. G.
Lazarev, "Kratky ocherk razvitiia meditsiny v Belevskom uezde, 1865—1900 (A Short Essay
on the Development of Medicine in the Belev District, 1865—1900) in: "Trudy VII
s'ezda zemskih vrachei Tul'skoi gubernii" (The Transactions of the 7th
Meeting of Zemstvo Physicians of the Tula Province), Tula, 1900, pp. 4—5
1886, 14, p. 264. "Vrach" itself became interested in this experience: "Could some
colleagues of Belev or Glukhov inform us on details of this sad story?" (ibid.). To the great
disappointment of "Vrach", there was no answer.
70 It is very
regretful that I have not been able to consult myself specific archival documentation, but may only
refer to this letter of Mr. Antonov. No other state archives could be successfully approached.
Gomeopatichesky vestnik, 1887, 4, pp. 341—342
Vrach-gomeopat, 1901, 2, pp. 96—110
St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1873, 5, pp. 149—150
Vrach-gomeopat,1894, 10, p. 493
Vrach-gomeopat,1900, 3, p. 83 and periodical reports that were published in
"Vrach-gomeopat" during 1899.
76 "Istorichesky ocherk sooruzhenia nadgrobnogo
pamiatnika Samuilu Ganemanu, osnovateliu gomeopatii. Sostavil L. Brazol'" (Lev Brazol,
'Historical Essay on the Building of the Memorial of Samuel Hahnemann — the Founder of
Homeopathy'), St. Petersburg, 1910, p. 11
Obshchee sobranie Kievskogo posledovatelei gomeopatii" (The 4th Meeting of the Kiev
Society of Followers of Homeopathy), Kiev, 1893, p. 16
Vrach-gomeopat, 1896, 1, p. 26
79 See the
section "Homeopathic societies" in the chapter "Homeopathic facilities".
1887, 35, p. 861
1885, 46, p. 777
"Sobranie pisem sviatitelia Feofana" (Collected Letters of St. Feofan), Moscow, 1901, p.
73. In translating these fragments of Feofan's letters, I have tried to keep as close as
possible to his original style of writing.
83 Ibid., p.
city-fortress of Cronstadtis situated 29-km westwards of St. Petersburg. Founded in 1703 by Peter
the Great to shield St. Petersburg from the side of the Baltic Sea.
Lindenmayer, "Poverty...", see note 41, p. 170
any politician nor even the Tsar were at that time as popular [as Ioann was]. When Alexander III
was dying in Crimea in 1894, he invited Ioann to his bedside." Walter Laguer, "Chornaia
sotnia. Proiskhozhdenie russkogo fashizma" ("Black Hundred. The Rise of the Extreme Right
in Russia"), Moscow, 1994, pp. 90—91
Lindenmayer, "Poverty...", see note 41, pp. 172—173. "His [Ioann's] power
was neither in his ideas nor in his writings but just in his personality". Walter Laguer
"Chornaia...", see note 86, p. 91. In his last years of his life Ioann adopted the
positions of right extremism. He justified the Kishinev pogrom in April 1903, later joined the
Union of the Russian People ("Black Hundred") and was the first to sanctify its flags.
For more information on him see: A. Semenov-Tian-Shansky, "Otets Ioann Kronshtadsky"
(Father Ioann of Cronstadt), New York, 1955; I. Sursky, "Otets Ioann Kronshtadsky", vols.
1—2, Belgrade, 1938—1941; A. Selawry, "Johannes von Kronstadt, Staretz
Russlands", Basel, 1981; N. Kizenko, "A Prodigal Saint: Ioann of Cronstadt and the
Russian People, 1850—1988", Albany, 1999.
Lindenmayer, "Poverty...", see note 41, p. 289. Those clergymen who emigrated to France
after the Bolshevik revolution established the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad which since then has
maintained its own policy, independent from the Russia-located Russian Orthodox Church.
discussion in "Kolokol" several pages later
Obshchee...", see note 77, pp. 10—12
gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1909, 8, pp. 254—255
curriculum of seminaries included the 6-year course divided into 3 forms
("otdeleniia"): 1. rhetoric 2. philosophy 3. hermeneutics. Together with spiritual
disciplines also mathematics, physics, secular history, Hebrew, Greek and some modern languages
were learned. The graduates of the full course at seminaries were qualified as priests
("sviashchenniki"), whilst those who finished only one or two forms were qualified as
senior sacristans. Prior to be accepted in seminaries, the young men in the spiritual district
schools had studied during 4 years Latin, Slavonic, Russian and Geography as well as some
disciplines needed for the service as sacristans, like catechesis and parish recordkeeping. The
graduates of these institutions who did not intend or afford to continue their education at
seminaries, were qualified as young sacristans. (G. Freeze, "The Parish...", see note 21,
1888, 22, pp. 438—439
gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1900, 7, pp. 191—197
gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1903, 11, pp. 351—355
96 Ibid., p.
1897, 27, p. 780
Vrach-gomeopat, 1895, 3, p. 99
99 Ilia Sundi,
"Istoricheskaia zapiska o vozniknovenii i deiatel'nosti Sankt-Peterburgskogo Obshchestva
posledovatelei gomeopatii za vremia so 2-go maia 1881 po 2-e maia 1891 g." (Historical Writing
on Emergence and Activity of the St. Petersburg Society of the Followers of Homeopathy During the
Period from May 2, 1881 to May 2, 1891), St. Petersburg, 1892, pp. 40—41
Vrach-gomeopat, 1896, 1, pp. 25—41
Vrach-gomeopat, 1894, 11, pp. 512—514
102 This was
the homeopathic book most popular among lay Russians, written by above mentioned St. Petersburg
homeopath Pavel Solov'ev: "Domashny lechebnik" (The Domestic Self-Treatment Book).
This book had been published in 1883, and was republished 4 times until 1917.
103 These were
translations into Russian of books by Richard Hughes: A Manual of Pharmacodynamics (1881), Edward
Ruddock: The Homeopathic Vade Mecum of Modern Medicine (1883) and Joseph Laurie: The Homeopathic
Domestic Medicine (first Russian edition 1874, second edition 1881).
Vrach-gomeopat, see note 101, pp. 515—523
105 Ibid., p.
527. In the very same spirit was the above cited article "Opinion of A Rural Priest on the
Benefit of Homeopathy" of Fedor Kibardin (see note 72) written. Priest Kibardin turned to
homeopathy after he had buried within 5 years his wife, two daughters, his mother and aunt,
although all had received allopathic treatment. While becoming entirely dissatisfied with
allopathic medicine, he decided to turn to homeopathy. After describing many cases taken from his
experience of successful treatment of the peasants with homeopathy, he concludes: "If I would
have dealt with homeopathy timely, I would not have allowed death to take such a power [in my
home]. I consider the death of my relatives as being God's punishment for my unbelief in
homeopathy". Unlike priest Karolinsky, Kibardin used homeopathy also for cattle and found
homeopathy efficient also in the treatment of animals. Although Kibardin did not propose to build a
whole homeopathy-based system of public health like Karolinsky, he also appealed to the rural
clergy calling for its active involvement in learning and using homeopathy.
Vrach, 1895, 24, p. 693
gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1903, 11, p. 375
Vrach, 1887, 33, p. 646
Kolokol (The Bell). According to its subheading, a "social, clerical, political and
literary newspaper". Issued in St. Petersburg (1905—1916).
Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1911, 5—6, p. 130
111 Ibid., pp.
112 Ibid., pp.
113 Ibid., pp.
114 Ibid., pp.
115 In his
speech at the opening of the society, Fedorovsky hinted that legislative support of this new role
of the church-parish communities would be needed. "Blagotvoritel'noe Khristoliubivoe
Obshchestvo samopomoshchi v bolezniakh" (The Charitable Christ-Loving Society of Self-Help in
Diseases), St. Petersburg, 1900, p. 6
117 Ibid., pp.
118 Ibid., pp.
Vrach-gomeopat, 1904, 8—9, pp. 295—316
Jütte, "Samuel Hahnemanns Patientenschaft". In: Martin Dinges (Ed.):
"Homöopathie. Patienten. Heilkundige. Institutionen. Von den Anfängen bis
heute", Heidelberg, 1996, p. 36.
121 Ibid., p.
35. Unfortunately, there is no mention in the paper how many patients Hahnemann had had altogether
during his Leipzigean practice. Nevertheless, Jütte notes that during that period Hahnemann
had had some 10—15 consultations daily (ibid., p.28).
examples see Robert Jütte, "Samuel....", see note 120, pp. 35—36
Jütte, "Wo alles anfing: Deutschland" in: Martin Dinges (Ed.) "Weltgeschichte
der Homöopathie. Länder. Schulen. Heilkundige", Munich, 1996, p. 42
Vrach-gomeopat, 1895, 11, p. 490
Wolf, "...nichts weiter als eben einen unmittelbaren persönlichen Nutzen..." Zur
Entstehung und Ausbreitung der homöopathische Laienbewegung", Jahrbuch des Instituts
für Geschichte der Medizin der Robert Bosch Stiftung, Stuttgart, 1985, vol. 4, p. 79
Stolberg, "Die Homöopathie im Königreich Bayern", Medizin, Gesellschaft und
Geschichte, v. 14, 1995, p. 180
Hattori, "Co-operation and Tensions between Homeopathic Lay Societies and Homeopathic Doctors:
the Homeopathic Lay Movement in Württemberg during the Professionalisation of the Medical
Profession, 1868—1921" in Martin Dinges (Ed.) "Patients in the History of
Homeopathy", Sheffield, 2002, pp. 259-280.
Staudt, "[...] den Blick der Laien auf das Ganze gerichtet [...]'. Homöopathische
Laienorganisationen am Ende des 19. und zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts". In: M. Dinges (Ed.),
"Homöopathie...", see note 120, p. 95
130 Olivier B.
Faure, "Eine zweite für Homöpathie". In: M. Dinges (Ed.):
"Weltgeschichte...", see note 123, p. 52. Writing about the sympathy the French Catholic
clergy had toward homeopathy, Robert Jütte (see note 120) refers to Paul Delaunay, "La
Médecine et ľEglise", Paris, 1948.
131 Phillip A.
Nicholls, "Homoeopathy and the Medical Profession", London, 1988, p. 135
"Report on Homeopathy in the Speeches on Irregular Practice", 1851, p. 15 cit. P.
Nicholls, ibid., p. 114
133 Roy James
Squires, "Marginality, Stigma and Conversation in the Context of Medical Knowledge,
Professional Practices and Occupational Interests. A Case Study of Professional Homeopathy in
Nineteenth Century Britain and the United States", Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Leeds,
1985, pp. 348-349
Nicholls, "Class, Status and Gender: Toward a Sociology of the Homoeopathic Patient in
Nineteenth Century Britain". Paper delivered at the Second Stuttgart Conference on the History
of Homeopathy, Stuttgart, 1999
Morrell, "A History of Homeopathy in Britain". Paper published at http://www.homeoint.org/morrell/articles/pm_brita.htm
Winston, "The Faces of Homoeopathy" Tawa, 1999, p. 562.
137 Harris L.
Coulter, "Divided Legacy. A History of the Schism in Medical Thought" Vol. 3, Berkeley
1973, pp. 110—111
Kaufman, "Homoeopathy in America: The Rise, Fall and Persistence of a Medical Heresy" in:
Norman Gevitz (Ed.), "Other Healers, Unorthodox Medicine in America", Johns Hopkins Univ.
Press, Baltimore, 1990, p. 101
"Transactions of the American Institute of Homeopathy", XXII, (1869), p. 388, cit. H.
Coulter, "Divided...", see note 137, pp. 111—112
"Minutes of the Proceedings of the National Medical Convention, Held in the City of
Philadelphia in May, 1847", p. 87, cit. H. Coulter, ibid., p. 194
Rogers, "An Alternative Path. The Making and Remaking of Hahnemann Medical College and
Hospital of Philadelphia", Rutgers University Press, 1998, p. 49
Coulter, "Divided...", see note 137, p. 467.
143 A. P.
Bogachuk, "Kent i Swedenborg" (Kent and Swedenborg), Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi
meditsiny, 1995, 4, p. 19
144 Joseph M.
Schmidt, "Homeopathy in the American West: its German Connections" in: Robert Jütte,
Guenter B. Risse and John Woodward (Eds.) "Culture, Knowledge, and Healing. Historical
Perspectives of Homoeopathic Medicine in Europe and North America", Sheffield, 1998, pp.
Bogachuk, "Kent i...", see note 143, p. 20. See also N. Rogers "An
Alternative...", see note 141, p. 9
Bogachuk, "Kent i...", see note 143, p. 24
147 For more
detailed explanation see E. Galen, "Kent's hidden links: the influence of Swedenborg on
homeopathic philosophy of James Tyler Kent". Homeopathic Links, 1994, vol. 3, pp.
27—30 and pp. 37—38. See also the chapter "The Swedenborg connection" in the
book by Julian Winston, "The Faces...", see note 136, pp. 166—167
148 J. Schmidt
"Homeopathy...", see note 144, pp. 157—158
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