The history of homeopathy in the Russian Empire
until World War I, as compared with other European countries and the USA: similarities and discrepancies

by Alexander Kotok, M.D.
On-line version of the Ph.D. thesis improved and enlarged
due to a special grant of the Pierre Schmidt foundation.

Notes and references

Chapter Two: Homeopathic facilities: Societies, Hospitals, Pharmacies, Periodicals

1 Aron Zhuk, "Razvitie obshestvenno-meditsinskoi mysli v Rossii v 60—70 gg. XIX veka" (The Development of the Public-Medical Thought in Russia in the 1860—1870s of the 19th Century), Moscow, 1963, pp. 39-40

2 Nancy M. Frieden, "Russian Physicians in an Era of Reform and Revolution, 1856—1905", Princeton, New Jersey, 1981, pp. 109-110. Zhuk (see note 1) in his book details this outbreak in the 1860s: 1858 — Society of Irkutsk physicians, soon transformed into the Society of the Physicians of East Siberia, and the Society of Naval Physicians in St. Petersburg with branches in Cronstadt, Nikolaevsk-on-Amur and Arkhangelsk; 1860 — societies of physicians in Saratov, Podol and Simbirsk; 1861 — Society of Russian physicians in Moscow, Society of Yaroslavl' physicians and Khar'kov medical society; 1862 — societies of physicians in Kursk, Kaluga, Tula, Nizhny Novgorod and Mogilev; 1863 — societies of physicians in Orel and Arkhangelsk as well as the Russian Balneological Society in Piatigorsk; 1864 — the Caucasus medical society in Tiflis (now Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia); 1865 — the Orenburg physical-medical society; 1867 — societies of physicians in Dorpat and Minsk; 1868 — societies of physicians in Kerch, Simferopol', Elizavetgrad (since 1924 Kirovograd) and Kazan'; 1870 — the society of physicians in Kherson (pp. 39-40).

3 N. Frieden, "Russian...", see note 2, pp. 29—36

4 On Vasily Deriker see further in this chapter

5 Carl Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia v Rossii", St. Petersburg, 1882, p. 151

6 Ibid., pp. 151—152

7 Ibid., p. 152

8 Ibid., pp. 152—153

9 Ibid., p. 282

10 Ibid., pp. 282-283

11 See the chapter "Allopathy vs. Homeopathy"

12 The diary of Dr. Chistovich kept in the library at the St. Petersburg Military-Medical Academy, cit. E. N. Pavlovsky, "K. M. Baer i Mediko-Khirurgicheskaia Akademia" (K. M. Baer and the Medico-Surgical Academy), Moscow-Leningrad, 1948, p. 200.

Dr. Yacov Chistovich (1820—1885), was a Russian hygienist, forensic physician and historian of medicine. He also was the founder of the first Russian cathedra of hygiene, the initiator of the establishment of the first Russian physicians' mutual aid fund.

13 "Ustav obshchestva vrachei, zanimaiushchihsia gomeopaticheskim lecheniem v Sankt-Peterburge" (The Regulations of the Society of Physicians Dealing with Homeopathic Treatment in St. Petersburg), St. Petersburg, 1868 pp. 1—8

14 Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov (Journal of the St. Petersburg Society of Homeopathic Physicians), 1872, 1, p. 29

15 "Ustav St. Peterburgskogo obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov" (The Regulations of the St. Petersburg Society of Homeopathic Physicians), St. Petersburg, 1870, p. 4

16 Ibid., pp. 4—16

17 S.-Peterburgskoe obshchestvo vrachei-gomeopatov, 10 Marta 1870 g." (St. Petersburg Society of Homeopathic Physicians, March 10, 1870).

To the best of my understanding, the word "incomplete" is the most appropriate translation for an old-fashioned Russian word "sorevnovatel'". According to the most detailed Russian dictionary of Prof. D. Ushakov, "Chlen sorevnovatel' (official, pre-Revolutionary) — as not possessing full rights as a member of any society, being also a candidate to become a full member" — "Tolkovyi slovar' russkogo iazyka" (The Explanatory Dictionary of Russian Language), Moscow, 1996, p. 391. It is probably that Ushakov's explanation is not absolutely correct because in our case an incomplete member was not a candidate and could never become a full member as long as he did not become a physician, pharmacist or veterinarian.

18 Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1872, 11, p. 333.

19 Ibid., p. 336.

20 Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1873, 1, p. 25.

21 Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1873, 4, p. 97.

22 Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1875, 1, p 2.

23 Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1875, 10, p. 294.

24 "Ustav gomeopaticheskoi lechebnitsy dlia prikhodiashchikh v S.-Peterburge" (The Regulations of Homeopathic Dispensary for the Visiting Patients), St. Petersburg, 1870, 6 pp.

25 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", see note 5, p. 286. For some obscure reason, Bojanus failed to stick to the right figures, as there are mistakes in his counts in almost every annual report. A simple composition of the number of patients who recovered with that of those who either improved, or died, or provided no data on their conditions, does not give in the sum the number of the patients who were received. I find it difficult to explain here this Bojanus' inaccuracy.

26 Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1872, 11, p. 342.

27 Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1873, 4, p. 100.

28 Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1875, 1, p. 3.

29 Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1875, 10. p. 292.

30 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", see note 5, p. 286.

31 See the section "Russian homeopathic periodicals" further in this chapter.

32 Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1872, 11, p. 334.

33 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatia...", see note 5, p. 297.

34 Ibid., p. 296.

35 On debates around the opening of the hospital, see ibid., pp. 290—291.

36 Ibid., p. 296.

37 Ibid., p. 297.

38 Ibid., p. 327.

39 Dmitry Ivanovich Zhuravsky — a Russian scientist and engineer, the founder of the Russian scientific school in the field of construction mechanics and bridges' building. An author of the projects and a builder of large bridges. Works on the resistance of materials. Was awarded the Demidov reward (1855). ("Sovetsky Entsiklopedichesky Slovar' — The Soviet Encyclopedic Dictionary, Moscow, 1980, p. 446).

40 Ilia Sundi, "Istoricheskaia zapiska o vozniknovenii i deiatel'nosti Sankt-Peterburgskogo Obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii za vremia so 2-go maia 1881 po 2-e maia 1891 g." (Historical Essay on the Emergence and Activity of the St. Petersburg Society of the Followers of Homeopathy during the Period from May 2, 1881 to May 2, 1891), St. Petersburg, 1892, pp. 68—69.

41 Ibid., pp. 4—5.

42 Ibid., p. 6.

43 On Nicholas Grech see the chapter "Homeopathy and zemstvo medicine", the section "Homeopathy and zemstvo-directed propaganda".

44 He was probably a relative of Dr. Vladimir Dal'. On the latter see the section "Conversion: A Russian example" in the chapter "Allopathy vs. Homeopathy".

45 For the full list see I. Sundi "Istoricheskaia...", see note 40, pp. 46—47 and p. 49.

46 Ustav Sankt-Peterburgskogo Obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii" (Regulations of the St. Petersburg Society of the Followers of Homeopathy), St. Petersburg, 1881, pp. 1-17.

47 "Ustav lechebnitsy vo imia Sv. Arkhangela Mikhaila uchrezhdennoi v St. Peterburge Obshchestvom posledovatelei gomeopatii" (Regulations of the Dispensary after the name of Archangel Michael founded in St. Petersburg by the Society of the Followers of Homeopathy), St. Petersburg, 1881, pp. 1—15.

48 The reader may be astonished to hear that till now there is a homeopathic pharmacy, probably the largest in Russia, situated at the same address.

49 I. Sundi, "Istoricheskaiia...", see note 40, pp. 63—64.

50 Ibid., p. 17.

51 Ibid.

52 Ibid., pp. 13—14.

53 Ibid., p. 72. The topic of Mattei's medicines is partly discussed in the chapter "Allopathy vs. Homeopathy", in the section "The typology of Russian homeopathy".

54 Ibid., p. 15.

55 Gomeopaticheskii vestnik, 1884, 1, pp. 3-4.

56 I. Sundi, "Istoricheskaia...", see note 40, pp. 13—14.

57 Ibid., p. 17.

58 The table is reproduced from the archive of Dr. Nicholas Gabrilovich kept in the Russain State Archive, fond 656, file 410, p. 9.

60 "41-e obshchee sobranie chlenov S.-Peterburgskogo Blagotvoritel'nogo Obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatgii, 23-go marta 1914 goda" (41st Common Meeting of the Members of the St. Petersburg Charitable Society of the Followers of Homeopathy, March 23, 1914), St. Petersburg, 1914, pp. 28—29.

61 Ibid., pp. 27—28.

62 "Pod flagom blagotvoritel'nosti" (Under the Flag of Charity), St. Petersburg, 1914, p. 3.

63 Vrach-gomeopat, 1913, 6-8, pp. 176—214.

64 Gomeopaticheskii vestnik, 1887, 11 or 12?

Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1904, 4, pp. 102—106.

65 Vrach-gomeopat, 1894, 4, attachment.

66 Vrach-gomeopat, 1896, 6, pp. 238.

67 Ibid., p. 241

68 "Otchet o deitael'nosti lechebnitsy s postoiannymi krovatiami obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, so vremeni eia osnivaniia po 1-e ianvaria 1898" (Report about the Activity of the Homeopathic Dispensary with the Beds Attached to it by the Society of Homeopathic Physicians, since its Establishment till January 1, 1898), St. Petersburg, 1898, p. 6.

69 Vrach-gomeopat, 1896, 6, p. 240.

70 Vrach, 1895, 1, p. 4.

71 Vrach-gomeopat, 1895, 2, p. 97.

72 Vrach-gomeopat, 1896, 1, pp. 45—46.

73 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1901, 6—8, p. 229.

74 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1911, 5—6, p. 191

75 "Otchet Obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii v Moskve za 1913 g." (Report of the Society of the Followers of Homeopathy for 1913), Moscow, 1914, pp. 1—2.

76 Gomeopaticheskoe obozrenie, 1915, 5, p. 160.

77 Nicholas Raevsky "Samopomoshch, ili Lechenie difterita bez posobia vrachei i dorogih aptek sredstvami gomeopatii. Posviashchaet roditeliam i vsemu strazhdushchemu chelovechestvu vrach-gomeopat Raevsky", Odessa, 1886.

78 Zhurnal gomeopaticheskogo lecheniia, 1864, 1, p. 64.

79 Odessky listok, 1890, N 261, p. 2.

80 Vrach, 1891, 16, p. 415.

81 Ivan Lutsenko, who was one of the prominent Russain homeopaths during the period from 1890s to WWI, was born to a noble family which lived in the Poltava province. In 1882, he started studying at the mathematical department of the mathematical-physical faculty at the St. Petersburg University. A year later, he had passed to the department of the natural sciences and graduated from the University in 1886. In 1887, he had entered the St. Petersburg Medical-Surgical Academy and graduated cum laude in 1891. In 1893, he defended his MD thesis "On nightblindness". Unfortunately, the story of his conversion to homeopathy in unknown. Nevertheless, it certainly had occurred before writing MD dissertation, as in the thesis No 4 of the dissertation he wrote: "At severe headaches, accompanying intermittent fever, a tincture of Gelsemium sempervirens is a wonderful drug" (Ivan Lutsenko, "K ucheniiu o kurinoi slepote", St. Petersburg, 1893, p. 81). In 1918, he joined the Independent Ukrainian Directory headed by Simon Petliura (1879—1926) and was one of the most important persons in the government. Being a field commander, he felt in 1919 in the battle at the small town of Kuz'min. (Pavlo Skoropadsky, "Spogady" (Memoirs), Kyiv Philadelphia, 1993, p. 343).

82 Vrach-gomeopat, 1896, 3, pp. 116—123.

83 Vrach-gomeopat, 1896, 5, pp. 205—217.

84 "Ustav OdesskogoGanemanovskogo Obshchestva" (Regulations of the Odessa Hahnemannian Society), Odessa, 1898, p. 3.

85 "Otchet Odesskogo Obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii za 1897 god" (Report of the Odessa Society of the Followers of Homeopathy for 1897), Odessa, 1898, p. 4.

86 Ibid., p. 3.

87 "Otchet Odesskogo Obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii za 1899-1900" (Report of the Odessa Society of the Followers of Homeopathy for 1899-1900), Odessa, 1900, p. 7.

88 Ibid., p. 10.

89 "Otchet Pravleniia Odesskogo Ganemanovskogo obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii za 1900" (Report of the Board of the Odessa Hahnemannian Society for 1904), Odessa, 1905, Odessa, 1901, p. 18.

90 "Otchet Pravleniia Odesskogo Ganemanovskogo obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii za 1903" (Report of the Board of the Odessa Hahnemannian Society for 1903), Odessa, 1904, p. 4.

91 "Otchet Pravleniia Odesskogo Ganemanovskogo obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii za 1904" (Report of the Board of the Odessa Hahnemannian Society for 1904), Odessa, 1905, pp. 4-5 "(Report of the Board of the Odessa Hahnemannian.

92 "Otchet Pravleniia Odesskogo Ganemanovskogo obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii za 1902" (Report of the Board of the Odessa Hahnemannian Society for 1902), Odessa, 1903, p. 10.

93 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1909, 12, p. 376.

94 "Meditsinsky ukazatel' Odessy. Spravochnoe izdanie", Odessa, 1914.

95 The following sources were used : Otchety Pravlenia Odesskogo Ganemanovskogo Obshchestva, 1901—1904; Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1900, 3, p. 91; 1901, 4, p. 126; 1902, 4, p. 120; 1903, 2, p. 83; 1904, 3, p. ?; 1911, 1, p. 95; Vrach-gomeopat, 1909, 12, pp. 375—376; 1911, 3, pp. 95—96; 1912, 9, p. 270; 1913, 10—11, p. 356 and Gomeopaticheskoe obozrenie, 1914, 7, pp. 222—223.

96 Zhurnal gomeopaticheskogo lecheniia, 1862, 12, p. 202.

97 Vrach, 1891, 40, p. 910.

98 Cit. Vrach-gomeopat, 1891, 11, pp. 439—441.

99 Ibid., p. 442.

100 Otchet Pravlenia Khar'kovskogo Obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii s 1-go ianvaria 1893 po 1-e ianvaria 1894 g." (Report of the Board of the Khar'kov Society of the Followers of Homeopathy from January 1, 1893 to January 1, 1894), Khar'kov, 1894, p. 4.

101 "Otchet Pravlenia Khar'kovskogo Obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii za 1895 g." (Report of the Board of the Khar'kov Society of the Followers of Homeopathy for 1895), Khar'kov, 1899, p. 2.

102 Ibid., p. 3.

103 "Otchet Pravlenia Khar'kovskogo Obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii za 1896" (Report of the Board of the Khar'kov Society of the Followers of Homeopathy for 1896), Khar'kov, 1897, pp. 4—5.

104 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1900, 1, p. 29.

105 "Otchet Pravlenia Khar'kovskogo Obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii za 1898" (Report of the Board of the Khar'kov Society of the Followers of Homeopathy for 1898), Khar'kov, 1899, pp. 4—5.

106 "Zhurnal extrennogo sobraniia chlenov Khar'kovskogo obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii 15 noiabria 1899 g." (Protocol of a Special Meeting of the Members of the Khar'kov Society of the Followers of Homeopathy held on November 15, 1899), Khar'kov, 1899, p. 10).

107 Ibid., p. 13.

108 Pharmatsevtichesky vestnik, 1900, 35, p. 630.

109 Pharmatsevtichesky vestnik, 1900, 42, pp. 747—48.

110 "Ves' Khar'kov" (All Khar'kov), 1914, v. 2, p. 462.

111 "Ves' Khar'kov v karmane" (All Khar'kov in the pocket), Khar'kov, 1915.

112 The sources used are "Reports of the Board of the Society" from 1896 to 1904.

113 Gomeopatichesky vestnik, 1884, 10, p. 218.

114 "4-e obyknovennoe obshchee sobranie gg. chlenov Kievskogo obshhcestposledovatelei gomeopat" (The 4th Meeting of the Kiev Society of Followers of Homeopathy), Kiev, 1893, pp. 3 and 6.

115 Vrach-gomeopat, 1906, 4, p. 138.

116 Vrach-gomeopat, 1910, 1, p.30.

117 Vrach-gomeopat, 1888, 1, p. 72.

118 See Alexander Kotok, "Patients of Russian Pre-World War I homeopathy" in Martin Dinges (Ed.) "Patients in the History of Homeopathy", Sheffield, 2002, pp. 157—172.

119 Tadeush Brzezinski, "Vom ungleichzeitigen Beginn in dreigeteilten Polen zur später Vereinheitlichung" in: M. Dinges, "Weltgeschichte der Homöopathie. Länder. Schulen. Heilkundige", Munich, 1996, p. 121.

120 See article by Evgraph Diukov, "Homeopathy and Masonry" in Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1911, 8—9, pp. 225—235.

121 Vrach-gomeopat, 1892, 6, p. 249.

122 Vrach-gomeopat, 1896, 5, p. 217.

123 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1903, 7-9, p.?.

124 Vrach-gomeopat, 1909, 4—5, p. 180.

125 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1910, 1, p. 29.

126 Vrach-gomeopat, 1909, 4—5, p. 180.

127 Vrach-gomeopat, 1913, 9—10, p. 305.

128 "Otchet Pravleniia Vilenskogo Obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii za 1914" (Report of the Vilna Society of the Followers of Homeopathy for 1914), Vilna, 1915, p. 2.

129 According to different data published in homeopathic periodicals.

130 Vrach-gomeopat, 1896, 2, p. 85.

131 Vrach-gomeopat, 1893, 6, pp. 277—78.

132 Vrach-gomeopat, 1896, 8, p. 332.

133 Vrach-gomeopat, 1897, 12, pp. 486—487.

134 Vrach-gomeopat, 1902, 9—10, pp. 287.

135 Vrachebnaiia gazeta, gomeopatichesky listok, 1861, 46, pp. 361—364.

136 See the section "The Affair of Dr. Zeman" in the chapter "Allopathy vs. Homeopathy".

137 Vrach-gomeopat, 1898, 2, pp. 83—84.

138 Vrach-gomeopat, 1900, 6, p. 245.

139 "Tiflisskoe Obshchestvo posledovatelei gomeopatii. Lechebnitsa dlia prihodiashchih bol'nyh. Ustav lechebnitsy dlia prihodiashchih bol'nyh Obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii v g. Tiflise (Utverzhden 9 fevralia 1909) )" (Tiflis Society of the Followers of Homeopathy. The out-patient dispensary. The Regulations of the Dispensary of the Tiflis Society of the Followers of Homeopathy. Approved on February 09, 1909) Tiflis, 1909.

140 Gomeopaticheskoe obozrenie, 1914, 1, p. 30.

141 Vrach-gomeopat, 1915, 1, p. 111.

142 Vrach-gomeopat, 1913, 6—8, pp. 237—238.

143 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1900, 3, p. 91.

144 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1903, 11, p. 373

145 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1900, 4, p. ?

146 Gomeopaticheskoe obozrenie, 1914, 2, pp. 59—61.

147 Gomeopaticheskoe obozrenie, 1914, 1, pp. 28—29.

148 "Otkrytie Obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii v g. Chernigove" (Opening the Society of the Followers of Homeopathy in the City of Chernigov), Chernigov, 1892.

149 Vrach-gomeopat, 1895, 10, pp. 468—471.

150 Vrach, 1894, 49, p. 1366.

151 Cit. Richard Haehl, "Samuel Hahnemann. His Life and Work", 1922, vol. 2, p. 299.

152 Robert Jütte, "The Professionalisation of Homoeopathy in the Nineteenth Century" In: John Woodward and Robert Jütte (Eds.): Coping with Sickness. Historical Aspects of Health Care in a European Perspective, Sheffield, 1995, p. 58.

153 Short biographical data on Dr. Carl von Seidlitz (1789—1885) may be found in "Biographisches Lexicon der hervorragenden Ärzte", Wien und Leipzig, 1887, vol. V, pp. 348—349.

154 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", see note 5, p. 17 and C. Bojanus, "Homöopathie in Rußland", Stuttgart, 1880, pp. 14-15.

155 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", ibid., pp. 17-19. Bojanus mentioned that Herrmann's statistics is slightly incorrect: 123+18+18+6=165, and not 164 (p. 19).

156 Ibid, pp. 18—19.

157 Ibid., pp. 16—17.

158 C. Bojanus, "Homöopathie...", see note 154, p. 19.

159 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", see note 5, p. 23.

160 Ibid., p. 17.

161 Zhurnal Ministerstva vnutrennih del, 1832, 3, p. 53. 341+23=364. There was no mention in the Zhurnal concerning the fate of the rest (31 patients). Probably, they remained in the same health condition.

162 Lev Reichenbach, "Dr. Pribyl', pervyi gomeopat na Kavkaze" (Dr. Pribyl', the First Homeopath in Caucasus), Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1873, 8, pp. 239-250.

163 C. Bojanus "Gomeopatiia...", see note 5, p. 136. Dr. Gastfreund had graduated from the Vienna University. He moved to Russia in 1840, was examined at the Moscow University and allowed to practice medicine in the Russian Empire.

164 Ibid., p. 123.

165 Ibid., pp. 123—124.

166 Short biographical data on Julius Schweikert may be found in Rudolf Tischner "Geschichte der Homöopathie", Leipzig, 1932, p. 799.

167 Moskovskie Vedomosti (Moscow Gazette), 1959, N 267.

168 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", see note 5, p. 137.

169 See also a testimony of Dr. Schweikert on Dr. Haas cited by Bojanus, ibid., pp. 137-138.

170 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", see note 5, p. 136.

171 See also the section "Russian Orthodox Church and homeopathy" in the chapter "Homeopathy and the clergy".

172 D-r C. Bojanus, "Opyt prilozheniia gomeopatii k khirurgii" (Experience of Applying Homeopathy to Surgery), Moscow, 1860 and "Die homöopathische Therapeutik in ihrer Anwendung auf die operative Chirurgie", Steinkopf, Stuttgart, 1880.

173 On Martin Mandt and his "system", representing a medley of Hahnemann's practical findings with Rademacher's theoretical views, see also R. Tischner "Geschichte...", see note 166, pp. 657-661 and Bojanus "Gomeopatiia...", see note 5, pp. 124—126. See also his own book: Mandt Martin Wilhelm "Ein deutscher Arzt an Hoffe Kaiser Nicolaus I. von Russland. Liebenserrinerungen von Martin Mandt", Munich, 1917.

174 In the St. Petersburg Russian National library the following three translations of Mandt's writings into Russian are kept:

174-1. Mandt M. M. "Lecheniie cholery" (Treatment of Cholera) Translated from the writings of Dr. Mandt by the physician-in-ordinary A. Nikitin [Rückenmark und Darmschleimhaut und ihre Verhältniss zur Cholera: von Dr. M. Mandt, St. Petersburg-Leipzig, 1849], St. Petersburg, 1849, 40 pp.

174-2. Mandt M. M. "Sposob lecheniia cholery, predlozhenny i ispytanny gospodinom leib-medikom Mandtom (A Method for the Treatment of Cholera Proposed and Examined by Physician-in-Ordinary Mandt), St. Petersburg, 1849, 11 pp.

174-3. Mandt M. M. "O cholere i otnoshenii k nei stanovoi zhily i slizistoi obolochki kishok. Sochinenie d-ra M. Mandta, leib-medika ego Imp. Velichestva, d.s.s., kavalera Ordena Sviatoi Anny pervoi stepeni i proch." (About Cholera and its Relationship to the Spinal Cord and Mucous Membrane of the Guts. A Writing by Dr. M. Mandt, Physician-in-Ordinary to His Majesty the Emperor, Full Councillor of State, A Holder of St. Anna Order, etc.) Translated by Dr. med. Mark Magaziner, St. Petersburg, 1849, 220 pp.

175 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", see note 5, p. 126.

176 Diary of Dr. Chistovich; cit. E. N. Pavlovsky "K.M. Baer i...", see note 12, p. 201.

177 Ibid.

178 Ibid., pp. 201—202.

179 Ibid., p. 196.

180 Ibid., p. 200.

181 Ibid., pp 202—203.

182 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", see note 5, p. 146.

183 For more detail see the section "Homeopathic societies" in this chapter.

184 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", see note 5, p. 277.

185 Probably, Bojanus meant that they did not complete the treatment for some reason.

186 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", see note 5, p. 278.

187 Ibid., p. 279.

188 B. Plonka-Syroka, "Rezeption der Homöopathie in polnischen Ärztekreisen des 19. Jahrhunderts", Medizin, Gesellschaft und Geschichte, 16, 1997, pp. 145—170.

189 See note 119.

190 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", see note 5, p. 305.

191 Ibid., pp. 305—327.

192 1. "Pochemu ia sdelasia gomeopatom?" (Why I became a homeopath?); first published as a letter in the journal "Russkaia rech" (Russian Discourse) in 1882; in the same year issued as a brochure in St. Petersburg 2. "Rukovodstvo gomeopaticheskogo lecheniia" (Manual of Homeopathic Treatment) vols. 1—2, St. Petersburg, 1882—3. 3. "V zashchitu gomeopatii" (In Defence of Homeopathy), St. Petersburg, 1882 4. "Kak lechit' difterit" (How to treat diphtheria); first published as an article in the journal "Svet" (Light) No 217, later in the same (1883) year issued in St. Petersburg as a brochure.

193 On his conversion to homeopathsee the section "Conversion: a Russian example" in the chapter "Allopathy vs. Homeopathy". pp. 64—66.

194 Vrach, 1883, 2, p. 31.

195 "Trudy soveshchaniia vrachei pri S.-Peterburgskom Blagotvoritel'nom obshchestve posledovatelei gomeopatii. Vypusk I" (Transactions of the Physicians' Meeting at the St. Petersburg Charitable Society of the Followers of Homeopathy. No.1), St. Peterburg, 1897, p. 17.

196 See A. Kotok, "Patients...", see note 118.

197 "Trudy...", see note 152, p. 18.

198 Ibid., p. 19.

199 "Zodchie Sankt-Peterburga XIX — nachalo XX veka", St. Petersburg, 2000, p. 517.

200 See the brochure "Otkrytie bol'nitsy v pamiat' Imperatora Alexandra II v St. Peterburge" (The Opening of the Hospital in Commemoration of the Emperor Alexander II in St. Petersburg), St. Petersburg, 1898.

201 Vrach-gomeopat, 1915, 1, pp. 93-108.

202 Leonid Lindenbraten, "Ocherki istorii rossiskoi rentgenologii", Moscow, 1995, pp. 8-9

203 The data used in this table was taken from the archives of Dr. Nicholas Gabrilovich, Russian State Archive, fond 656, file 410, p. 10.

204 Janis Krisis, "The Homeopathic Drugstore in Riga", Pharmacy in History, 1981, 2, p. 76.

205 "Ocherk piatidesiatiletnei deiatel'nosti S.-Peterburgskoi gomeopaticheskoi apteki. Sostavil i izdal A. Sas" (Essay on the 50 Year Long Activity of the St. Petersburg Central Pharmacy. Written and Issued by A. Sas), St. Petersburg, 1884, pp. 2—5.

206 Vrach, 1894, 49, p. 1419.

207 "Zhurnal extrennogo sobrannia Khar'kovskogo obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii 15 noiabria 1899 g." (Protocol of a Scpecial Meeting of the Members of the Khar'kov Society of the Followers of Homeopathy held on November 15, 1899), Khar'kov, 1899, p. 10.

208 Ibid., p. 13.

209 Pharmatsevtichesky vestnik, 1900, 35, p. 630.

210 Pharmatsevtichesky vestnik, 1900, 42, p. 747—748.

211 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1910, 1, pp. 31—32.

212 Vrach-gomeopat, 1896, 1, p. 26.

213 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1900, 9, p. 317.

214 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1909, 3, p. 94.

215 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1911, 11, p. 351.

216 Vesntik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1910, pp. 243-44.

217 Gomeopaticheskoe obozrenie, 1914, 1, p. 29-30.

218 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1903, 12, p. 387.

219 Pharmatsevtichesky zhurnal (Pharmaceuticall Journal), 1909, 50, p. 555.

220 Pharmatsevtichesky zhurnal, 1909, 49, p. 541.

221 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1910, 1, pp. 31—32.

222 Vrach-gomeopat, 1910, 2—3, p. 100.

223 Vrach-gomeopat, 1911, 8—9, pp. 238—239.

224 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1910, 2, pp. 33—45.

225 "Grazhdanin", 1910, 5, p. ?, cit. Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1910, 3, pp. 61—67. "Grazhdanin" was published by Meshchersky in 1872—1914. While speaking of Prince Meshchersky, I would like to refer to the opinion of Sergey Witte (1842—1915) — a Russian state figure, Minister of Communications (1892), Finance Minister since 1892, Chairman of the Committee of Ministers since 1903, Chairman of the Board of Ministers in 1905—06. He wrote in 1911 on Meshchersky: "Prince Meshchersky, the editor-publisher of "Grazhdanin", has played a rather important role in our political life during the last 25 years. A clever man of multifold gifts, but at the same time an unprincipled and immoral person". Sergey Witte, "Izbrannye vospominaniia, 1849—1911" (Selected Memoirs, 1849—1911), Moscow, 1997, v. 2, p. 122. And later: "Now he (Meshchersky) is writng the reactionary papers of especially zoological character", ibid., p. 125. Meshchersky was the publisher and editor of some other conservative periodials, in which he attacked the reforms of Alexander II: "Dobro" (The Good) in 1881, "Rus'" (Russia) in 1894—96 and "Voskresen'e" (Sunday) in 1887—1905.

226 Evgraph Diukov, "K 300-letiu doma Romanovyh", Khorol, 1913, p. 9.

227 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1912, 11 p. 334 referring to "Revue Homoeopatique 1912".

228 Vesntik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1910, 5, pp. 151—153.

229 Vesntik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1913, 10—11, p. 10.

230 Vrach-gomeopat, 1913, 11-12, pp. 360—362.

231 Vrach, 1890, 12, pp. 280—282 and 15, pp. 337—340.

232 Ibid., p. 280.

233 Vrachebnaiia gazeta, gomeopatichesky listok, 1860, 1, pp. 1—2.

234 Vrachebnaiia gazeta, gomeopatichesky listok, 1861, 31, p. 248.

235 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", see note 4, p. 153. There were 350 subscribers by the end of 1861 — Zhurnal gomeopaticheskogo lecheniia, 1861, 24, p. 25.

236 C. Bojanus, ibid.

237 Gomeopaticheskoe obozrenie, 1914, 1, p. 2.

238 Gomeopaticheskoe obozrenie, 1914, 7 p. 195.

239 Gomeopaticheskoe obozrenie, 1915, 17, p. 514.

240 Phillip Nicholls, "Homeopathy and the Medical Profession", London, 1988, p. 111.

241 Glynis Rankin, "Professional Organisation and the Development of Medical Knowledge: Two Interpretations of Homeopathy" in: Roger Cooter (Ed.): "Studies in the History of Alternative Medicine", St. Martin's Press, New York, 1988 p. 48.

242 Ibid., p. 52.

243 P. Nicholls, "Homoeopathy and...", see note 240, p. 112.

244 Ibid., p. 113.

245 Bernard Leary, "The Influence of Patients in the Provision of Homeopathy in Great Britain: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries" in Martin Dinges (Ed.) "Patients in the History of Homeopathy", Sheffield, 2002, pp. 331—350.

246 P. A. Nicholls, "Homoeopathy and ...", see note 240, p. 113.

247 Ibid., p. 134

248 These statistics were taken from Peter Morrell, "A History of Homeopathy in Britain" published at http://www.homeoint.org/morrell/articles/pm_brita.htm.

249 P. Nicholls, "Homoeopathy and ...", see note 240, p. 182.

250 Ibid., p. 183.

251 Ibid., p. 186.

252 Peter Morrell, "A History...", see note 248.

253 R. Jütte "The Professionalisation...", see note 152, p. 59.

254 R. Tischner "Geschichte...", see note 166, p. 107.

255 R. Jütte "Wo alles anfing: Deutschland" in: M. Dinges (ed.) "Weltgeschichte...", see note 119, p. 28. For detailed history of German homeopathic hospitals see Heinz Eppenich "Geschichte der deutschen homöopathischer Krankenhäuser", Heidelberg, 1995.

256 R. Tischner "Geschichte...", see note 166, p. 630. When writing on 1860/61, Jütte, referring to different sources, defines the number of homeopathic doctors in Germany as 259. R. Jütte "The professionalisation...", see note 152, p. 61.

257 R. Tischner, "Geschichte...", see note 166, p. 631.

258 Gomeopatichesky vestnik, 1887, 1, p. 6.

259 Vetsnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1900, 6, p. 17.

260 Allgemeine homöopathische Zeitung, 1904, v. 149, p. 82; cit. Martin Dinges, "Professionalisierung homöopathischer Ärzte: Deutschland und Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika im Vergleich", Medizin, Gesellschaft und Geschichte, 1995, 14, p. 148, footnote 28.

261 R. Jütte, " Wo alles...", see note 255, p. 32.

262 Ibid., p. 42.

263 Ibid. On the history of some homeopathic societies in Germany and their activities see: Erich Haehl, "Geschichte des Badischen homöopathischen Ärztevereins", Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung, 1932, 180, N 3 and 6; Eberhardt Wolff, "... nichts weiter als eben einen unmittelbaren personlichen Nutzen... Zur Enstehung und Ausbreitung der homöopathischer Laienbewegung", Jahrbuch des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin der Robert Bosch Stiftung, 1985, v. 4, pp. 61—97; Michael Stolberg, "Die Homöopathie im Königreich Bayern" Medizin, Gesellschaft und Geschichte, 1995, v. 14, pp. 173—194; Martin Stahl, "Zur Geschichte der Vereinigung homöopathischer Ärzte Rheinlands und Westphalens", ibid., pp. 195-218; Dörte Staudt, "[...] den Blick der Laien auf das Ganze gerichtet [...]. Homöopathische Laienorganisationen am Ende des 19. und zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts", in: M. Dinges, (ed.) "Homöopathie. Patienten. Heilkundige. Institutionen. Von AnfЧ”ngen bis heute", Heidelberg, 1996 and "The Role of Laymen in the History of German Homeopathy" in: Robert Jütte, Guenter Risse and John Woodword (Eds): "Culture, Knowledge and Healing. Historical Perspectives of Homeopathic Medicine in Europe and North America", Sheffield, 1998, pp. 199—215; Eberhardt Wolff, "Eine gesunde Concurrenz sei für das Publicum stets von Vortheil. Der homöopathische Arzneimittelmarket zwischen Apotheken and Laienvereinen" ibid., pp. 102—131; Osamu Hattori, "Co-operation and tensions between Homeopathic Lay Societies and Homeopathic Doctors: the Homeopathic Lay Movement in Württemberg during the Professionalisation of the Medical Profession, 1868—1921" in Martin Dinges (Ed.) "Patients in the History of Homeopathy", Sheffield, 2002, pp. 259-280.

264 Ibid., p. 36.

265 Olivier Faure, "Eine zweite Heimat für die Homöopathie: Frankreich" in: M. Dinges (Ed.) "Weltgeschichte...", see note 119, p. 60.

266 Ibid.

267 Ibid.

268 Ibid.

269 According to "Almanach" published by the Brothers Catellan, cited by Maurice Garden "L'histoire de l'homéopathie en France" in: Oliver Faure (Ed.), "Praticiens, Patients et Militants de l'Homéopathie (1800—1940). Actes du Colloque, Lyon, Octobre 1990", Presses Universitaires de Lyon, 1992, p. 70.

270 Gomeopatichesky vestnik,1887, 1, p. 6.

271 "Thorsons Encyclopedic Dictionary of Homoeopathy. Edited by H. Gaier", London, 1991, p. 248.

272 R. Tischner "Geschichte...", see note 166, p. 128.

273 Ibid.

274 M. Garden "L'histoire...", see note 269, p. 75.

275 John Harley Warner, "Ideals of Science and Their Discontents in Late Nineteenth-Century American Medicine", ISIS, 1991, 82: p. 454—478.

276 Harris L. Coulter, "Divided Legacy. A History of the Schism in Medical Thought" Vol. III, Wehavken Book Company, Washington 1973, pp. 101—102.

277 Julian Winston, "The Faces of Homeopathy", Tawa, 1999, p. 49.

278 M. Dinges, "Professionalisierung...", see note 260, pp. 144—145.

279 William G. Rothstein, "American physicians in the 19th century. From Sects to Science", Baltimore & London, 1972, p. 236.

280 J. Winston, "The Faces...", see note 277, p. 226.

281 James H. Cassedy, "The Flourishing and Character of Early American Medical Journalism, 1797—1860", Journal of the History of Medicine, 1983, v. 38, 2, pp. 142—3. I cannot say that these statistics have some peculiarities as compared to the American allopathic statistics: during the same period the regulars reported 250 new periodicals, which provided 1630 volumes. 196 periodicals closed. Sixty-one went no further than issuing volume 1. Ibid.

282 M. Dinges, "Professionalisierung...", see note 260, p. 149 and M. Dinges, "Die Internazionalität der Homöopathie" in: M. Dinges, (Ed.) "Weltgeschichte...", see note 119, p. 394.

283 Josef M. Schmidt, "Die Entwicklung der Homöopathie in den Vereinigten Staaten", Gesnerus, 1994, 51, pp. 90 and J. Winston, "The Faces...", see note 277, p. 225.

284 Gomeopatichesky vestnik, 1887, 2, p. 141.

285 See also a remark by M. Dinges concerning "influential patients, like princesses, provincial or State figures, jurists and members of parliaments", who promoted the institutialization of homeopathy in the European countries. M. Dinges, "Die Internazionalität ...", see note 282, p. 387.

286 For example: the Moscow Hygienic Society, which was considered average both in its size and importance, counted 126 members in 1894 — 92 doctors, 13 teachers, 6 engineers, 6 pharmacists, 1 lawyer and 8 representatives of other occupations (Vrach, 1894, 6, p. 187).

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