The history of homeopathy in the Russian Empire
until World War I, as compared with other European countries and the USA: similarities and discrepancies

by Alexander Kotok, M.D.
On-line version of the Ph.D. thesis improved and enlarged
due to a special grant of the Pierre Schmidt foundation.

Homeopathy and its Founder

CH.  I
Allopathy vs. Homeopathy: Homeopathy in Russia During the Period Under Study

1.1 Introduction
1.2 The 1820s and the Beginning of the 1830s — the Decisive Years for Russian Homeopathy
1.2.1 Homeopathy in Russia: Its First Steps
1.2.2 The Cholera Years
1.2.3 Homeopathy Reflected in the Contemporary Periodicals and Literature
1.2.4 The Decisions of 1832—33. State Status of Homeopathy in Russia
1.3 The 1840—1860s — the Establishment of Homeopathy
1.3.1 Further Spread of Homeopathy in Russia
1.3.2 A Discussion, Which Never Took Place
1.3.3 The First Russian Homeopathic Facilities
1.4 The 1870—1880s
1.4.1 Homeopathic Department at the Helsingfors Hospital
1.4.2 The Medical Council vs. Homeopathy: 50 Years Later
1.5 From the 1890s to the First Russian Revolution (1905)
1.5.1 Expulsion from Allopathic Societies The Affair of Dr. Laur (1854—1901): Homeopathy and the Bicycle The Affair of Dr. Zeman (1898)
1.5.2 Contra Homeopathy: Anti-Homeopathic Publications
1.5.3 Hiding Information on Homeopathy
1.5.4 The Ban on Consultations with Homeopaths
1.5.5 The 9th Meeting of the Pirogov Society
1.6 From the First Russian Revolution to the First World War (1905—1914)
1.6.1 The First All-Russian Meeting of the Followers of Homeopathy
1.7 Conversions: A Russian Example
1.7.1 Dr. Vladimir Dal'
1.7.2 Dr. Osip Lensky
1.7.3 Dr. Vladimir von Ditmann
1.7.4 Dr. Zubov
1.8 The Typology of Russian Homeopathy
1.9 Comparative Aspects
1.9.1 Germany
1.9.2 Britain
1.9.3 France
1.9.4 United States of America
1.10 Summary
1.11 Notes and references CH. I

Homeopathic Facilities:
Societies, Hospitals, Pharmacies and Periodicals

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Societies
2.2.1 The St. Petersburg Society of Homeopathic Physicians: From the Establishment to the Split
2.2.2 A New Power — the St. Petersburg Society of the Followers of Homeopathy. Its First Steps
2.2.3 St. Petersburg Society of the Followers of Homeopathy: The Main Russian Homeopathic Society
2.2.4 Other Russian Homeopathic Societies The St. Petersburg Society of Homeopathic Physicians Moscow Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Odessa Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Odessa Hahnemannian Society Khar'kov Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Kiev Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Warsaw Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Vilna Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Poltava Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Tiflis Homeopathic Society Kamenetsk-Podol'sk Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Semipalatinsk Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Yalta Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Stavropol' Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Christ–Loving Society of Self-Help in Diseases Feodosiia Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Perm Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Chernigov Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Ekaterinoslav Society of the Followers of Homeopathy Minsk Society of the Followers of Homeopathy
2.2.5 Summary
2.3 Russian Homeopathic Hospitals
2.3.1 Less Important Russian Homeopathic Hospitals  At the Beginning — the 1820—1830s  The Favored Homeopathy — the 1840—1850s  Hospitals in the 1870s Onwards
2.3.2 Alexander II Homeopathic Hospital
2.4 Homeopathic Pharmacies
2.4.1 Homeopathic Pharmacies in Russia — An Outlined History
2.4.2 Allopathic Counterattack
2.5 Homeopathic Periodicals
2.6 Comparative Aspects: Homeopathy in Europe and the USA During the Same Period
2.6.1 Britain
2.6.2 Germany
2.6.3 France
2.6.4 United States
2.7 Summary
2.8 Notes and references CH. II

Homeopathy and Zemstvo Medicine

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Russian Medicine Before the Introduction of the Zemstvo System
3.3 The Zemstvo System
3.4 Introducing the Zemstvo System of Medical Services. First Steps of Zemstvo Medicine
3.5 Physicians Within Zemstvo Medicine
3.6 The Zemtsvo and Homeopathy
3.7 Zemstvo-Directed Homeopathic Propaganda
3.8 The Novgorod-Seversk Zemstvo Experience
3.9 The Nizhnedevitsk Zemstvo Experience
3.10 Summary
3.11 Notes and references CH. III

Homeopathy and the Clergy

4.1 Introduction
4.2 The Russian Orthodox Clergy in Russian Society
4.2.1 Russian Orthodox Clergy and Russian Medicine
4.2.2 Russian Orthodox Clergy in the Reformed Russia
4.3 Russian Orthodox Church and Homeopathy
4.3.1 Collaboration and its Preconditions
4.3.2 The Belev Experience
4.3.3 Homeopathic Activity of the Church
4.3.4 Russian Orthodox Clergy and its Homeopathic Connection — How Did this Phenomena Spread?
4.3.5 Debates Around Homeopathy Discussions on Teaching Homeopathy in Seminaries Discussion in General Periodicals
4.3.6 The Charitable Christ-Loving Society of Self-Help in Diseases
4.4 Homeopathy and the Clerics — Some Comparative Aspects
4.4.1 Germany
4.4.2 France
4.4.3 Britain
4.4.4 United States
4.5 Summary
4.6 Notes and references CH. IV


Main Bibliographical Sources


Thesis submitted for the degree "Doctor of Philosophy"
by Alexander Kotok, MD
Submitted to the Senate of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
November, 1999

Copyright © Alexander Kotok 2001
Mise en page, illustrations Copyright © Sylvain Cazalet 2001